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Updated: May 27

Somalia is a country located in the Horn of Africa, bordered by Djibouti to the northwest, Ethiopia to the west, and Kenya to the southwest. With a population of over 15 million people and a land area of approximately 637,000 square kilometers, Somalia is one of the larger countries in the region.


Somalia's terrain is characterized by a range of landscapes, including the arid desert in the north, the fertile agricultural lands in the south, and the rugged mountains in the northeast.

Somalia's capital city is Mogadishu, a bustling metropolis known for its historic architecture and vibrant markets. Other major cities include Hargeisa, Garowe, and Bosaso.


Somalia is home to a diverse array of ethnic and religious groups, with the majority of the population being Muslim. Other significant ethnic groups include Bantu, Arab, and Ethiopian.

Somalia has a rich cultural heritage, with traditional music, dance, and crafts being an important part of Somali culture. The country is also known for its distinctive cuisine, which includes dishes such as bariis iskukaris (spiced rice with meat or vegetables) and sambuusa (a type of fried pastry).


Somalia has a long and complex history, with a number of civilizations and empires existing in the region for centuries. The country's modern history began with the arrival of European colonizers in the late 19th century, with Somalia eventually gaining independence in 1960.

During the 1990s, Somalia underwent a period of political turmoil and civil war, which led to the displacement of thousands of people and significant damage to the country's infrastructure. In recent years, Somalia has made progress towards political stability and economic development, although challenges remain.


Somalia is a federal parliamentary republic, with a president serving as the head of state and government. The current president is Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed, who has been in power since 2017. The country has a multi-party political system, with regular elections and a vibrant civil society.


Somalia has a developing mixed-market economy, with a range of industries including agriculture, fishing, and telecommunications. The country's main exports include livestock, fish, and remittances, which are important sources of revenue for the government.

Somalia is also a major transportation hub, with a strategic location at the crossroads of East Africa and the Middle East. The country is home to a number of international organizations, including the African Union and the United Nations.


Somalia faces a number of challenges, including issues of poverty, inequality, and political instability. The country is also vulnerable to the effects of climate change, with droughts and floods posing a significant threat to the country's agricultural sector and food security.

Somalia is also grappling with ongoing security concerns, with terrorist groups such as Al-Shabaab continuing to pose a threat to the country's stability and development.


Somalia has a number of protected areas, including the Kismayo National Park and the Somali Coastal Wildlife Corridor, which are home to a range of unique wildlife and offer opportunities for ecotourism.

The country is also investing in renewable energy, with a focus on solar and wind energy projects. This has helped to reduce the country's reliance on fossil fuels and promote sustainable development.

Somalia is a country with much potential, from its rich cultural heritage to its unique natural landscapes. While the challenges facing the country are significant, the resilience and determination of its people offer hope for a better future. By investing in sustainable development and conservation, Somalia can continue to grow and prosper in the years to come.



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